Malawi

(Redirected from Malaŵi)
Charu ya Malawi
Flag of Malawi.svg

Bendera ya Malawi
Coat of arms of Malawi.svg

Chidindo cha Malawi
chiyowoyelo chiChewa, ChiTumbuka, chiYao, chiSena, ChiLomwe, ChiTonga, ChiNgonde, ChiLambya
Msumba ukulu Lilongwe
mtundu wa Boma Demoklase
Ukulu km² 118.484
Wakazi 18.143.217 (Julayi 2018)
nkhongono ya ndalama 157 US-$ (2004)
Ufulu 06.07.1964
Ndalama Kwacha ya Malawi
Sumu ya Mtundu Chiuta tumbikani Malaŵi
Malaŵi mu Afrika

Malaŵi ni chalo ichi chili ku mafumilo gha zuba na kumwela kwa Africa. Vyalo ivyo vikuzingilila Malaŵi ni Tanzania ku mpoto na kumafumilo gha zuba, Zambia kumpoto na kumanjililo gha zuba na Moçambique kumwela, kumafumilo na kumanjililo gha zuba. Ni chalo ichi pakwamba chikachemekanga Nyasaland mpaka mu chaka cha 1964 apo chikapokela wanangwa kufuma ku baNgelezi, pa zuba la chinkhondi na limoza la mwezi wachinkhondi na chibiri (6 July).

Nyanja ya Malawi yikutola chigaŵa chimoza mu vigaŵa vitatu vya malo ghose gha Malawi. Msumba ukulu wake ni Lilongwe, wa chiŵiri ni Blantyre, wachitatu ni Mzuzu na na ŵa chinayi ni Zomba. Zina la Malawi likufuma ku lizgu loti Maravi, ilo ni zina lakale la ŵanthu aŵo ŵakhalanga mphepete mwa Nyanja ya Malawi.

Malo ya Afrika agho sono ni Malawi ghakakhazikika na ŵa ŵamagulu-magulu ŵochemeka ŵaBantu mu vilimika vya chikwi chachi khumi. Pati pajumpha vilimika vikwi vinandi mu 1891 ŵazungu ŵaku Britain ŵakiba malo aya nakuyachema yawo. Mu 1953 Malawi, apo yili Nyasaland, malo yovikilika ya ŵaBritain, yikabanya na vyalu vya Zambia na Zimbabwe mu Boma lo gaŵa nkhongono yochemeka federeshoni. Federeshoni yikaŵa mu 1963. Mu 1964 uvikili wa Nyasaland na Britain ukamala ndipo Nyasaland yikapoka ufulu wakujilamulila pasi pa Fumukazi Elizabeth II na zina loti Malawi. Mu vyaka viŵili nakuzazgoka ripabuliki, ufumu wa Elizabeth II nakumala. Kufuma apo kuzazgoka charu cha chipani chimoza pasi pa ulongozgi wa Hastings Kamuzu Banda, uyu wakaŵa mlongozgi paka 1994. Malawi sono niya demoklase, tavipani vinandi mu Boma na mlongozgi wosankhika na ŵanthu. Malawi yina ŵasilikali ŵovikilila ŵapamtunda, pa nyanja na mlengalenga. Malawi yili na ma ubale ghawemi na vyaru vinyakhe, yiliso m'mawupu gha umoza wa Charu, Commonwealth ya vyaru, Southern African Development Community, [[Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa] ] na Umoza wa Afrika. Malaŵi ni yimoza mwa vyaru vikavu nkhanira pa charu chose cha pasi. Chuma chakhe chikufuma chomene ku ulimi, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakukhala mu mizi. Unandi wa ŵanthu ukukula luŵilo chomene. Boma likugomezga chomene ovwili wakuwalo nangawuli ivi vyachepa kwamba 2000.

ŴaMalawi ŵana moyo wufupi kanandi, ndipo ŵabonda ŵakufwa chomene mu chaka chawo chokwamba chamoyo. Nthenda ya HIV/AIDS, Tili na ŵanthu ŵanandi. Pali tumikangano pakati pa mitundu ya ŵanthu ito tikuwonekela chomene pa nyengo ya visankho.

MbiriEdit

Pambeli ku malo agho sono ni Malawi kundize ŵa Bantu kukaŵa ŵa Kafula kweni ŵa Bantu ŵakamba kwiza mchilimika cha chi khumi kufuma ku mpoto kwa Afrika. ŵakalutilila ku m'mwela kwe ŵanyakhe ŵakakhala na kwamba ufumu wa Maravi na ŵa nkhamanga.

Pati pajumpha 1600, maravi yikaŵa na Fumu yimoza kwe mu 1700, Ŵakagaŵanika. ŴaArab ŵakamba kugula ŵazga m'Malaŵi chomene nkhanira m'ma 1800s, pafupi ŵanthu 20,000 ŵakibika kufuma ku Nkhotakota kuluta nawo ku Kilwa kukaguliskika.

Mu 1889, uvikili wa Britain ukaŵikika pa mapiri ya Shire, iyo mu 1891 yikasazgika kukwana Malaŵi yose wa mwahuno nga British Central Africa Protectorate. Mu 1907, uvili uwu ukazachemeka Nyasaland.

Mu 1944, Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) yopangika na ŵina Afrika ŵamu Nyasaland kuti yituske kunthazi makhumbo gha ŵina Malawi kwa Boma la ŵazungu. Nyasaland yikazaŵikika ku federeshoni yochemeka Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, kweniso Central African Federation ŵanthu ŵotinkha boma la ŵazungu ŵakakula ndipo NAC yikakula ŵolondezga. Mmoza wa ŵotinkha bola la ŵazungu akaŵa Dr. Hastings Banda, uyu akaŵa doktala ŵosambizgika kuwalo wakachemeka ku kaya ku Nyasaland mu 1958 kuti wavwile kulimbana na Boma la ŵazungu. Banda wakasankhika kuŵa president wa NAC. Ndipo wakakakika. Ŵakamuluka mu 1960 nakufumbika kuti walembe Dango la Nyasaland.

Mu 1961, Malawi Congress Party (MCP) ya Banda yikapambana mvisankho ndipo Banda wakazgo Phungu Yilala mu 1963. Federation yikamala mu 1963, ndipo pa 6 July 1964, Nyasaland yikasanga ufulu kwa ŵina Britain nakujichema Malawi. Na Dango liphya, Malawi yikazgoka ripabuliki na Banda nga Mlongozgi-charu.

Dango ilo likazgola Malawi la chipani chimoza icho chikaŵa MCP. Mu 1971, ŵakati Banda ni mlongozgi wa Moyo. Kwa pafupi vyaka 30, Banda wakalamulila nthenda. Vipani vyosuska nthe ya Malawi Freedom Movement ya Orton Chirwa na Socialist League of Malawi, yakapangika na aŵo ŵakatchimbizgika mu Malawi.

Banda wakazomela referendamu mu 1993 apo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵawukila boma ndipo ŵanthu ŵakavotela kuti Malawi yiŵe demoklase ya vipani vinandi. Mu 1993, ulongozgi wa Moyo ukakanika ndipo dango liphya likapangika. Mu 1994 mu visankho viphya, Banda wakaluskika na Bakili Muluzi uyu wakasankhikaso mu visola vya mu 1999, Ntheura wakakhara mlongozgi paka 2004, apo Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika wakasoleka na kuzasolekaso mu 2009.

Iye wakatinkhika na ŵanandi, chomene mu ulendo wakhe wachiŵiri nga mlongozgi apo ŵanthu ŵakachi viwoneskelo ivo ŵanthu 18 ŵakakomeka na ŵapolisi ndipo ŵanthu 44 ŵakapwetekeka.

Mu April 2012, Mutharika wakafwa na nthenda ya ntima; ndipo mlongozgi wakazgoka uyu wakaŵa mlongozgi wachiŵiri pasi pa Mutharika Joyce Banda.

Mu 2014 Joyce Banda wakatondeka visankho (kuŵa wachitatu) na kupokeleleka na peter Mutharika munung'una wa Bingu wa Mutharika nga mlongozgi.

Mu visankho vya 2019 wakapambana Peter Mutharika nanangawuli mphara ya milandu ghokhwaska Dango yikagamula kuti chisankho chikibika na chipani cha Peter Mutharika (icho ni Democratic Progressive Party) pamoza na wupu la Visola Ntheura visankho vizamuchitikaso pa 2 julayi 2020 apo chisankho cha 2019 chakomeka.

Maboma gha MalawiEdit